Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma resulting from poor glycemic control within a hospital setting is now considered a hospital-acquired condition by Medicare & Medicaid, meaning that hospitals will not receive additional payment for cases when this condition is acquired during hospitalization. Because of the severity of the impact of this condition, its implications and causes should be carefully studied to determine ways to reduce the risk of this condition being acquired during a hospital stay.
We can look at the impacted goals for a hospital and the potential causes for this condition, in a visual root cause analysis or Cause Map. To perform a Cause Mapping analysis, we will first determine the impacts of a given condition on an organization’s goals, then develop cause-and-effect relationships to diagram the causes that result in the condition.
According to a study published in the International Journal for Quality in Health Care, diabetic emergencies, including nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, increases the risk of patient death (from 9% to 16%), length of patient stay (from 7 to 14 days) and treatment requirements. The costs associated with nonketotic hyperosmolar coma (greater than $114 million in the US in 2007, according to CMS) are no longer reimbursable when the condition is acquired in the hospital. Additionally, patient death due to hospital-acquired conditions can result in a second victim – the healthcare provider(s).
To analyze this issue, we begin with an impacted goal and ask “Why” questions. In this case, we are looking at the impact to the patient safety goal becaue of the increased risk of patient death due to nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, which is caused by uncontrolled hyperglycemia (high blood glucose). Associated infection, medication that interferes with glucose absorption, and insulin deficiency can all contribute to hyperglycemia. Insufficient knowledge of providers about glycemic control can result in diabetic patients being given medications that interfere with glucose absorption, or in inadequate control of diabetes with insulin in the hospital setting.
The study referenced above also found that insufficient staffing, which may result in insufficient backups/checks of staff, use of workarounds, and ineffective communication between the team, leading to insufficient tracking of glycemic control. Providers may also be unaware of a patient’s diabetic status, due to poor record keeping or communication. Inadequate insulin therapy can also contribute to hyperglycemia. Specifically, medication errors involving insulin (see our medication error Cause Map), fear of hypoglycemia (which may result in fear of aggressive insulin therapy), and failure to adjust insulin for diet or other factors, including age, renal failure, liver disease, can result in an all too common “one size fits all” linear sliding insulin scale providing inadequate results.
Two other conditions are considered hospital-acquired manifestations of poor glycemic control, diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemic coma. In future blogs, we will discuss the causes of these issues, and suggested solutions to reduce the risk of these types of incidents.
To view the Outline and Cause Map, please click “Download PDF” above. Or click here to read more.